Welcome to NetSci's
List of Cheminformatics Software
Includes Chemical DB, Reaction DB, Analysis, etc.

Notice:Statements and opinions made for the products within this listing were supplied by their owners. Network Science Corporation assumes no responsibility for the content of these listings. All product and company names mentioned in this publication are patents, trademarks, registered trademarks or servicemarks of their respective holders. The Tabular Software Listings portion of this site are Copyright © 1995/2006 by Network Science Corporated. All rights reserved.

The Software Section of NetSci is accessed by hundreds of scientists every week. Our goal is to make this resource as comprehensive as possible. If your software program is not included, please send e-mail with a brief description, the categories under which your program should appear, the platforms supported, and contact information.

For programs currently listed in NetSci, please check the table and description andnotify us of any changes or additions.

[A, B, C ] -- [D, E, F ] -- [G, H, I ] -- [J, K, L ]
[M, N, O ] -- [P, Q, R ] -- [S, T, U ] --
[V, W ] -- [X, Y, Z]





--- A, B, C ---






 

AutoNom (Automatic Nomenclature) is a chemical naming software system for Windows and Macintosh operating systems. It uses a proprietary algorithm based on IUPAC nomenclature rules to generate IUPAC names automatically from chemical structures. The 4.0 version of AutoNom adds the following new functionality:

  • Chiral interpretation (R,S configurations) and double-bond topology (E,Z descriptors)
  • Support for CAS ring-system naming conventions
  • Ability to number atom locants within named structures

For complete information, please consult http://www.beilstein.com






 

CAMEO is a forward chaining reaction prediction program. Runs on VAX/VMS computer systems and uses Tektronix graphics. Contact:

Prof. William L. Jorgensen
Department of Chemistry
Yale University
P. O. Box 208107
New Haven, CT 06520-8107 USA.
Tel: (203)432-6278
Fax: (203)432-6299
E-mail: bill@adrik.chem.yale.edu.





 

The Catalyst environment was designed for use by the practicing chemist and computational expert alike, stressing ease-of-use and a directed task-oriented approach. Catalyst unifies hypothesis generation, pharmacopore identification, and 3D database searching into a single environment to accelerate the discovery of novel therapeutics. It is available from Accelrys






 

ChemExper is an online chemical database and searching tool. This is a very powerful free search tool allowing, among others, a substructure search or physical/chemical characteristics search in the database of some 60000 chemicals. In near future there will be also IR spectra for 15000 chemicals available. The company also offers a chemical bibliographical database (Experbib) and a user-friendly laboratory management program (Expereact). There is also an application allowing direct exportation of data to the CCD. Additional information available at

ChemExper sprl
36, clos de Profondval
1490 Court-st-Etienne
Belgium
http://www.chemexper.com/





 

ChemFileBrowser is free sotfware designed to visualize and work with SDF Files to exchange and analyse associated informations with chemical structures. It includes descriptors such as TPSA, molecular weight, HBd and Hba.






 

ChemFinder Pro - Chemical searching and information integration. The first organizational software for today's chemist. Create electronic lab notebooks, find structure-activity correlations, calculate MW and much more. This chemistry-savvy organizer greatly increases both your productivity and creativity. CS ChemFinder Pro acts as a gateway to chemical information sources and client-server with Beilstein, Oracle, Sybase and Rdb. ChemFinder is available from CambridgeSoft






 

Chemkey The Chemkey Search computer database has been compiled over a 30 year period and contains 45,000 references chosen from all the major organic journals. Particular attention has been devoted to synthetic methodology, asymmetric synthesis, heterocyclic chemistry, organometallic chemistry, stereochemistry, etc. Searching generally takes less than 30 seconds and the display is instantaneous. Key references are provided which enable the chemist to rapidly peruse the literature for additional references. The database allows the user to conduct both wide or narrow searching using wildcard and Boolean logic. Yearly updates containing 5,000 new references are added each year. Available for both the Mac and IBM using Filemaker Pro technology with no additional software required. For a demo sample of the database connect to URL: http://euch6f.chem.emory.edu/. Available from:

Heterodata Inc.
1055 Rosewood Drive
Atlanta, Ga. 30306
Tel: (404)727-0283
FAX: (404)727-6629
E-mail: chemap@dooley.cc.emory.edu





 

ChemProtect  is a new software program designed to help chemists in the selection of protective groups in synthesis.






 

ChemTK Lite is a free, Windows-based toolkit providing chemists the ability to visualize, organize, query, and analyze chemical screening data. Features include:

  • Visualization of SD files
  • Organization of data by common scaffold
  • Calculation of molecular descriptors
  • Generation of predictive QSAR models
  • Querying by substructure and/or property
  • Generation of R tables
  • Analysis of data by similarity and diversity
  • Calculation of maximum common substructures (MCSs)
  • Filtering and virtual screening of external files

Additional information is available from Sage Informatics LLC.




 

ChemTK evaluation software is available for download at http://www.chemtk.com. ChemTK is a Windows based cheminformatics toolkit providing chemists the ability to visualize, organize, query, and analyze chemical screening data. It functions both as a simple and convenient SD file browser and as a powerful decision-support platform, offering intuitive clustering and property-calculation capabilities, QSAR model generation and virtual screening, rapid similarity analyses, and many additional features. For a more thorough scientific discussion of ChemTK's features, see the following article in the most recent issue of JCICS (a link to the article is available from www.chemtk.com):

Miller, D.W. A Chemical Class-Based Approach to Predictive Model Generation. J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2003, 43, 568-578.





 

Chiron is an interactive program for the analysis and perception of stereochemical features in molecules and for the selection of chiral precursors in organic synthesis.






 

emolecules is the world's leading free open-access chemistry search engine. emolecules' mission is to discover, curate and index all of the public chemical information in the world, and make it available to the public. emolecules distinguishes itself by extremely fast searches, an appealing presentation of results, and high-quality chemical drawings.






 

CIARA is a program that stores chemical information and assists in planning chemical reactions. It eliminates much of the tedious and time consuming work of calculating data such as molecular weights, moles, reactant amounts, percent yields, etc. A minimum amount of information is entered and CIARA does the rest. CIARA also is a database program so records can be stored and searched. Each record in a CIARA database represents a single chemical reaction. If you want to scale up a reaction simply retrieve an existing record, change one value, and everything is recalculated including solvent volumes. All this is done through a convenient user friendly interface. CIARA is available from

Vogel Scientific Software, Inc.
1199 Leeward Ave
Lake Elmo, MN 55042-9643
Phone: 612-436-2998;
FAX: 612-436-2798;
E-mail: devogel@vogelscientific.com
http://www.vogelscientific.com





 

CLiDE, an acronym for Chemical Literature Data Extraction, is a document image processing software, which extracts content (i.e. structures, reactions and text) of chemistry documents. While the major focus of CLiDE is to convert scanned images of 2D structures into MOL or ChemDraw file formats, in the latest version it can also convert 2D structures from PDF documents into various chemical file formats. CLiDE version 2.1 contains many new features and enhancements, including:

  • handling of PDF input files
  • handling of 4/8 bit bitmap input file formats
  • better superatom recognition
  • simplified UI
  • updated help system

CLiDE v2.1 is available on various MS Windows platforms and it is offered in two packages:

  • the Lite version is focusing on structures only, and it is suitable for occasional individual page or structure processing
  • the Full version extracts structures, text and reactions, and it is geared towards creating databases from the literature.

For more information about CLiDE please visit our web site at http://www.simbiosys.ca or write us at clide@simbiosys.ca. The Lite version is also available from SciStore at http://chemstore.cambridgesoft.com/software/product.cfm?pid=269




 

Concord is used to quickly generate 3D structures from 2D or 2.5D connection tables. Concord is available from Tripos, Inc.






 

CORINA is a 2D-to-3D conversion utility which is available on the WWW.






--- D, E, F ---






 

DARC (Description, Acquisition, Retrieval and Correlation) is a chemical database system for storage, query and reporting on 2-D representations of chemical structures. The program is generally available in Europe from:

Questel
83-85 Boulevard Vincent Auriol
75646 Paris Cedex 13, FRANCE
Tel: + 33 144 236464
Fax: + 33 144 236465





 

Databases for cheminformatics research will be added to the databases.html file of the software lists. Check this listing regularly for new additions.






 

DayMenus is a menu driven program which integrates a large number of chemical information functions including structure specification, display, lookup, cross referencing, searching, property prediction and data analysis. The software has been replaced with newer products and is no longer available.






 

DEREK for Windows is a rule-based expert system that predicts the toxicological hazard of chemicals based on an analysis of their molecular structure. The software uses structure activity relationships (SAR or structural alerts) and gives some consideration to physicochemical properties to derive its predictions. All outcomes are peer reviewed by expert toxicologists and are supported by literature references. Alerts cover a wide range of toxicological end points, including carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and skin sensitisation. All the tools are provided for users to add their own in-house alerts. DEREK for Windows is supported on NT and 2000. For further information contact:

Nicole McSweeney
Head of Sales
Lhasa Limited
22-23 Blenheim Terrace
Woodhouse Lane
Leeds LS2 9HD
United Kingdom
http://www.lhasalimited.org
Tel. +44 (0) 113 3946061
Fax +44 (0) 113 3946099
Mobile +44 (0) 771 006 3808
E-mail nicole.mcsweeney@lhasalimited.org





 

DMax Chemistry Assistant™ automatically finds, formulates, validates and shows scientific hypotheses that best match small molecule screening data. Each discovered hypothesis suggests a relationship between molecule structure and biological activity and thus contributes to the researcher's insight in the underlying mechanism-of-action. In addition, the inferred hypotheses are combined into an auto-extracted expert system for in-silico screening and prioritization of large compound libraries. For each predicted score/rank, researchers can drill down to potential explanations and further down to the previously screened reference molecules that back those explanations.

DMax Chemistry Assistant can construct descriptive and predictive SAR models referring to substructures of arbitrary complexity, not just pre-defined fingerprints.

Kurt De Grave
PharmaDM nv.
Kapeldreef 60, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
phone: +32-16-298494
URL: http://www.pharmadm.com/DMaxChemistryAssistant.asp





 

DTREG (http://www.dtreg.com) generates SVM, decision tree and logistic regression models.






 

Equbits Insight is a SVM based predictive modeling software application designed for HTS and ADME chemists. Equbits Insight(tm) makes modeling easy and intuitive. You no longer need to be an expert in algorithmic tuning or optimization to get the most accurate results. With Equbits InsightT, you spend less time tuning and optimizing and spend more time analyzing and interpretin. Equbits InsightT is designed with the user in mind, to deliver results. Predictive Modeling with Equbits InsightT is:

  • Accurate- With Equbits Insight, users can generate the most accurate models and make better predictions
  • Automated- Save users time and resources by automating model generation
  • Ease of Use- Unlike other tools, Equbits Insight can be used out of the box, bringing powerful accurate results
  • Flexibile- Use Equbits Insight to provide modeling based on a variety of input descriptor types. With Equbits Insight, incorporate a priori knowledge to leverage existing knowledge to generate additional accuracy
  • Interpretable- Equbits Insight provides users with easy to interpret results. Integrate results with third party visualization tools for further analysis Equbits Insight runs on Windows, Linux, and Solaris operating systems.

To learn more, please contact:

Ravi Mallela
Equbits - Accelerating Drug Discovery
PO Box 51977
Palo Alto, CA 94303
Phone: 510-593-3223
Fax: 650-855-9151
Email: ravi@equbits.com
Website: www.equbits.com





 

EROS (Elaboration of Reactions for Organic Synthesis) is a computer assisted synthesis program developed by Gasteiger et.al. which uses a set of rules to propose synthetic routes. EROS is available from Dr. Johann Gasteiger, Erlangen University, Full address is available at URL http://www2.chemie.uni-erlangen.de/






--- G, H, I ---






 

ISIS (Integrated Scientific Information System) is a client/server system providing comprehensive chemical information management. ISIS gives scientists a single interface to manage, communicate, and analyze a variety of scientific data stored throughout a company's network.

The ISIS family of products includes:

  • ISIS/Base
  • ISIS/Draw
  • ISIS/Host





--- J, K, L ---






 

JChem is a package that contains Java applications and software development tools for chemistry. The software is portable (runs under Windows, Mac OS X, Unix, etc.) JChem Base provides chemical database searching capabilities by integration into relational database engines supporting SQL.

Modules include:

  • Standardizer (new): Structure canonization tool converting molecules from different formats into standard representation.
  • Screen (new): Screening based on pharmacophore or chemical fingerprints or other descriptors.
  • Reactor (new): Generating reaction products from reaction equations and reactants.
  • Fragmenter (new): Generating building blocks based on Recap rules from molecule libraries.
  • Metabolizer (new): Metabolism simulation using user-defined transformation rules.
  • JKlustor: clustering and diversity calculations based on molecular fingerprints or other properties.

The software can be tried/downloaded at http://www.chemaxon.com/products.html. Online demos located at http://www.jchem.com/examples.html






 

LHASA (Logic and Heuristics Applied to Synthetic Analysis) is a sophisticated retrosynthetic analysis program which can be used to suggest novel synthetic routes. The program uses a knowledge base of transformations to describe generic chemical reactions. The anaylsis of the compounds can be directed by the use of user-definable strategies and tactics. The program can also suggest an appropriate strategy based on its perception of the molecule. LHASA is now supported on VAX and most Unix platforms. For futher information contact:

Nicole McSweeney
Head of Sales
Lhasa Limited
22-23 Blenheim Terrace
Woodhouse Lane
Leeds LS2 9HD
United Kingdom
http://www.lhasalimited.org
Tel. +44 (0) 113 3946061
Fax +44 (0) 113 3946099
Mobile +44 (0) 771 006 3808
E-mail nicole.mcsweeney@lhasalimited.org





 

LiqCryst a database of Liquid Crystalline Compounds for Personal Computers






 

LOGKOW, a program developed at Syracuse Research Corporation is now free from the U.S. EPA website at http://www.epa.gov/oppt/exposure/docs/episuitedl.htm along with a number of other programs for MP, BP, VP, Henry's Law constant and a number of environmental fate processes (biodegradation, atmospheric oxidation, hydrolysis, etc.). LOGKOW is one of the more accurate fragment constant programs (e.g., see Tetko et al., J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci., 41: 1407-1421, 2001; W.M. Meylan and P.H. Howard. Atom/Fragment contribution method for estimating octanol-water partition coefficients. J. Pharm. Sci., 84: 83-92, 1995).






--- M, N, O ---






 

MACCS-II (Molecular ACCess System. Has been replaced by the ISIS system). A mainframe application used to build, maintain, and search a company's proprietary and commercial databases of 2D and 3D chemical structures and associated research data stored in relational databases.

MDL offers a range of databases that together form an electronic library, giving chemists structure-searchable access to data selectively abstracted from over 400 chemistry journals, 250 chemical supplier catalogs, pharmaceutical patent reports, company reports, regulatory reports, and conference proceedings. The databases -- updated annually, semiannually, or monthly -- cover synthetic methodology, metabolic transformations, 3D structures and data, available chemicals, and bioactivity information.

The OHS Safety Series provides the most comprehensive, independently researched chemical handling and safety information available. The suite of products and services help organizations manage and make accessible material safety data on over 100,000 chemical products selected from the inventories of leading companies. Data is available on CD-ROM for desktop computers or can be distributed in a client/server or mainframe environment. MDL also offers services to write material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for proprietary and for-sale chemical substances. Contact MDL Information Systems for additional information.






 

Marvin Applets and Marvin Beans 3.0 have been released. The packages contain software development tools and applications for chemistry. Marvin Applets and JavaBeans support drawing/displaying chemical structures and handling molecule objects.

The following are freely available:

  • Marvin Applets are free for free web sites.

  • MarvinSketch and MarvinView applications accessed from ChemAxon's web site

  • Locally installed MarvinSketch, MarvinView, and MolConverter applications.

Important changes:

  • Abbreviated groups, S-groups.
  • 3D cleaning, 3D conversion from 2D or SMILES
  • Elemental Analysis calculations
  • Tools menu and plugins: Charge distribution, pKa, logP, logD. (Without license key only 1 calculation at a time is allowed)
  • Creating user defined templates by dragging-and-dropping over template buttons.
  • Nicer looking molecules; atom properties are displayed separately from element symbols.
  • Radicals are supported.
  • Faster import of large XYZ and PDB files.
  • Molecule-related classes are 20-30% faster, R-group and reaction related classes are easier to use.
  • Signed applet is the default (allowing clipboard operations and the accessing of the local file system)

The software can be tried/downloaded at http://www.chemaxon.com/products.html. Online access also is available for Applets and Applications.




 

Merlin provides the ability to perform extremely fast searches on selected data in Thor chemical information databases. Merlin operates on sets of structures and is ideal for exploratory data analysis. Merlin is available from Daylight Chemical Information Systems






 

METEOR originally resulted from a three year research project to develop a computer system for the intelligent prediction of the metabolic fate of xenobiotic chemicals. The software is continually developed alongside experts from various industry and academic sectors, with knowledge of biotransformations covering phase I and phase II metabolism. The software predicts the metabolic fate of a parent compound, and it also evaluates the likelihood that each predicted metabolite could be found in vivo. This evaluation considers physicochemical parameters, such as logP. Metabolites can be restricted to those most likely to be of interest by user defined controls. These include:

  • Selection of confidence levels for metabolite generation
  • Sequence termination at excretable metabolites.
  • External link to ClogP
  • The potential to make species specific predictions
  • Restriction to either Phase I or Phase II processes

The report for a query compound contains specific literature references, and links to external commercial metabolism databases are available. METEOR can also perform alongside DEREK for Windows, allowing a fast assessment of the likelihood of potential metabolites being toxic. For further information contact:

Nicole McSweeney
Head of Sales
Lhasa Limited
22-23 Blenheim Terrace
Woodhouse Lane
Leeds LS2 9HD
United Kingdom
http://www.lhasalimited.org
Tel. +44 (0) 113 3946061
Fax +44 (0) 113 3946099
Mobile +44 (0) 771 006 3808
E-mail nicole.mcsweeney@lhasalimited.org





 

OPTIMA integrates informatics. Functioning within a client/server operating environment, OPTIMA from EMAX is developed using leading software and development tools. OPTIMA inter-connects the many disparate sources of information about every available substance and reagent. Robotics and automated compound warehouses may also be integrated to provide the complete solution. Functioning within a client/server operating environment, OPTIMA offers a cradle to grave chemicals information solution that increases research productivity, safety and regulatory compliance. This research enterprise solution integrates technology with policy and process considerations to ensure successful deployment. OPTIMA is available from

EMAX Solution Partners, Inc.
18 Campus Blvd.
Newtown Square, PA 19073
Tel: 610-325-3700 (800-551-EMAX)
E-mail: moreinfo@emax.com
http://www.sciquest.com/





--- P, Q, R ---






 

Project Library: A complete, ready-to-use desktop software application for managing project-level combinatorial chemistry data. The system offers user-friendly tools that help researchers create and manage libraries of generic and specific structures, along with associated bioassay, physical, and administrative data. Project Library expedites planning by offering a way to generate virtual libraries and, in conjunction with ISIS and MDL's databases, manages each step of the combinatorial chemistry workflow -- from synthesis planning, through library building and compound screening, to data analysis.






 

REACCS (Reaction ACCess System). A mainframe application used to build, maintain, and search a company's proprietary and commercial databases of chemical reactions and related data. The product has been replaced and is no longer available.

MDL offers a range of databases that together form an electronic library, giving chemists structure-searchable access to data selectively abstracted from over 400 chemistry journals, 250 chemical supplier catalogs, pharmaceutical patent reports, company reports, regulatory reports, and conference proceedings. The databases -- updated annually, semiannually, or monthly -- cover synthetic methodology, metabolic transformations, 3D structures and data, available chemicals, and bioactivity information.






 

RS3 Discovery is a research information systems which supports structures, properties, and other data in ORACLE 7 databases. The program is available from Accelrys






--- S, T, U ---






 

SciMetrics offers chemical prediction models for Vapor Pressure, Henry's Law, LogP, Water Solubility as well as the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena Pyriformis and Fathead Minnow. The program SciPredict is free but the models (after a 10 day trial period) are priced at $150 each. The program models are based on the training of a Bayesian Regularized Neural Network. Preditions can be made individually by inputting SMILES strings or by processing files of SMILES strings or SD files. Additional information available from:

Dr Frank Burden
SciMetrics
23 Harrow Street
Blackburn South
VIC 3130 Australia
Fax & VoiceMail: 613 8611 7960
frank.burden@scimetrics.com





 

MDL SCREEN: An ORACLE-based, client/server data management system for managing HTS information. Designed in working HTS laboratories and developed with input from leading HTS scientists around the world, MDL SCREEN supports every stage of the HTS process, from experimental design and protocol management to data validation and decision control. Modular and scalable in design, MDL SCREEN is an appropriate solution for any HTS operation, from multinational life science enterprises to start-up biotechnology firms. The software has been replaced and is no longer available.






 

SECS (Simulation and Evaluation of Chemical Synthesis) is a retro-synthesis analysis program in much the same mold as LHASA and SYNCHEM. The target molecule is analyzed according to strategic reactions using a database of known reactions as a guide for predicting single step transformations to simplified compounds. Several iterations of the procedure are required to develop a synthesis plan. Contact:

W. Todd Wipke
Department of Chemistry
University of California
Santa Cruz, CA 95064
Tel: +1-408-459-2397
Fax: +1-408-459-2935
E-mail: wipke@chemistry.ucsc.edu





 

SMILES Toolkit A programming library which provides basic functions needed for chemical information processing. The Toolkit is the basis for all other Daylight Toolkits. It is available from Daylight Chemical Information Systems






 

SMOG The Structural MOlecular Generation program exhaustively and non-redundantly generates chemical structures for a given molecular formula. The program makes use of the graph-theoretical Faradjev algorithm. It is written in C/C++ and runs on IBM PC compatible computers with EGA/VGA cards. The program occupies 1 Mb space and requires 2-3 Mb free space for structure storage. It is available from the CCL archives via ftp at ftp://ccl.osc.edu/pub/chemistry/software/MS-DOS/SMOG






 

SYBYL/3DB UNITY is Tripos' 3D-database and chemical information system. Contact Tripos, Inc.






 

SYNLIB (SYNthesis LIBrary) is a chemical reaction retrieval computer program through which laboratory scientists can rapidly search databases of chemical reaction information. A facile sketchpad method is available for building chemical structure diagrams. The searching portion of the program provides unique methods for querying chemical reaction libraries for matches to combinations of both structural and non-structural chemical questions. SYNLIB runs on Silicon Graphics, HP9000/720, NEC EWS4800, VAX/VMS and Macintosh II computer systems. Contact:

W. Clark Still
Department of Chemistry
Columbia University
New York, NY 10027 USA
Tel: +1-212-280-2577
Fax: +1-212-678-9039





 

Thor A high performance, full distributed database system designed for the storage and retrieval of chemical information. Data fields have the capability of holding any amount or kind of data. Contact Daylight Chemical Information Systems






 

TRIAD (TRIcyclics for Automated Design) is a database of more than 400,000 energy minimized molecular structures representing a comprehensive collection of tricyclic hydrocarbons. The database is available in MacroModel format (TRIAD-M) and CAVEAT vector format (TRIAD-V). Contact:

Office of Technology Licensing
2150 Shattuck Avenue, STE 510
Berkeley, CA 94704 USA
Tel: +1-510-643-7201
Fax: +1-510-642-4566
E-mail: domino@garnet.berkeley.edu (e-mail)





 

UVSS, from Genomining, lets you manage your virtual screening pipelines through an advanced batch scheduler. UVSS currently supports Gold, FlexX and Surflex.






--- V, W ---






 

Vcharge calculates accurate, conformation-independent, "ab initio-like" partial atomic charges for an SDfile of drug-like compounds in ~0.1 per compound. It is useful for a wide range of modeling and QSAR applications, and is available for Windows and Linux. Vcharge is an electronegativity equalization method in which the electronegativity of each atom depends upon its atomic number, hybridization, and bonding environment within the molecule. Electronegativities and hardnesses are averaged over alternate resonance forms of the molecule, which are automatically detected. The VC/2004 parameterization of Vcharge yields charges that accurately reproduce Hartree-Fock 6-31G* potentials at CHELPG sampling points, and that are strikingly similar to those in widely used force fields, such as AMBER and CHARMM22. The method is described in the following paper: Fast assignment of accurate partial atomic charges. An electronegativity equalization method that accounts for alternate resonance forms; Gilson,M.K., Gilson,H.S.R. & Potter,M.J.; J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2003, 43(6), 1982-1997. More information is available at http://www.verachem.com/Vcharge, and the program can be tried on-line at http://www.verachem.com/Vcharge2.html






--- X, Y, Z ---








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